Non-CITES trade

Council Regulation (EC) No 338/97 provides for the control of trade in certain species that are not listed in the Appendices to CITES; such species may be listed in Annexes A, B or D. Monitoring of trade in these species is entirely dependent on reporting by EU Member States; this section provides an overview of this trade[1] in 2012.

EU imports of non-CITES taxa listed in the EU Annexes in 2012 principally comprised Annex D reptile skins, dried plants and plant derivatives. Imports of particular note include Elaphe carinata skins, Harpagophytum spp. derivatives and live Pterapogon kauderni. The top non-CITES species exported by the EU in 2012 was Columba livia.

Seven non-CITES Annex A or B taxa were imported by Member States in 2012, compared to only three in 2011. As in 2011, a major proportion of the trade consisted of live Trachemys scripta elegans imported for scientific purposes, the majority of which were wild-sourced. One live T. scripta elegans was imported for personal purposes; this species was subject to an import suspension under Article 4.6 (d) of Regulation (EC) No 338/97 as an invasive species although Article 71 of Regulation (EC) No 865/2006 provides for an exemption for household articles. Imports of live specimens of this species increased by 15% between 2011 and 2012, reaching their highest level over the period 2003 onwards.

EU-reported imports of non-CITES Annex A and B taxa in 2012. All trade was direct.

[l] Annex [l]Taxon [l]Importer [l]Exporter Source Purpose [r]Quantity [l]Term
[l]Mammals A [l][i]Hystrix cristata[/i] [l]Denmark [l]Central African Republic W H [r]1 [l]trophy
[l]Mammals A [l][i]Hystrix cristata[/i] [l]France [l]Central African Republic W P [r]1 [l]trophy
[l]Mammals A [l][i]Hystrix cristata[/i] [l]Germany [l]Guinea W S [r]1 [l]body
[l]Mammals A [l][i]Hystrix cristata[/i] [l]Germany [l]Liberia W S [r]2 [l]bodies
[l]Mammals A [l][i]Hystrix cristata[/i] [l]Germany [l]Senegal W S [r]15 [l]bodies
[l]Mammals B [l][i]Sciurus carolinensis[/i] [l]Germany [l]United States W T [r]75 [l]tails
[l]Birds A [l][i]Ciconia stormi[/i] [l]Germany [l]United States F B [r]2 [l]live
[l]Birds A [l][i]Leptoptilos dubius[/i] [l]United Kingdom [l]Cambodia W S [r]1 [l]body
[l]Reptiles B [l][i]Trachemys scripta elegans[/i] [l]Denmark [l]United States W M [r]150 [l]live
[l]Reptiles B [l][i]Trachemys scripta elegans[/i] [l]Denmark [l]United States W S [r]150 [l]live
[l]Reptiles B [l][i]Trachemys scripta elegans[/i] [l]Germany [l]Turkey F [r]1 [l]live  
[l]Reptiles B [l][i]Trachemys scripta elegans[/i] [l]Germany [l]United States F S [r]42 [l]live
[l]Reptiles B [l][i]Chrysemys picta[/i] [l]Germany [l]United States F S [r]75 [l]live
[l]Amphibians B [l][i]Lithobates catesbeianus[/i] [l]Germany [l]United States C S [r]40 [l]bodies


EU imports of Annex D animal taxa principally comprised reptile skins, the majority of which were reported without a source or purpose specified; as in 2011, the primary reptile species in trade were Homalopsis buccata, Elaphe carinata and E. radiata (Table 6.2). Imports of E. carinata skins exceeded 100 000 skins in each year 2009-2012, following considerably lower levels of trade in previous years; imports increased by 22% between 2011 and 2012. The vast majority of skins imported in 2012 were imported directly from China. Live Pterapogon kauderni were also imported at notable levels in 2012, with imports increasing over four-fold compared to 2011; all were of unknown or unspecified source. The majority (59%) originated in Indonesia, where the species is endemic and classified as Endangered and in decline according the IUCN Red List.

Large volumes of Annex D dried plants and plant derivatives were also imported, all of which were either wild-sourced or reported without a source specified. The principal plant taxa in trade were Harpagophytum spp. (including Harpagophytum procumbens), the majority originating in Namibia, and Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, which primarily originated in the Russian Federation. Trade in these taxa was higher in 2012 than in the previous nine years. Trade in plants was all for commercial purposes or reported without a purpose specified.

EU-reported imports of non-CITES Annex D species in 2012.

[l]Group [l]Taxon [r]Quantity [l]Term (Unit)
[l]Mammals [i][l]Dendrolagus goodfellowi[/i] [r]1 [l]live
[l]Birds [i][l]Gallicolumba criniger[/i] [r]1 [l]live
[l]Birds [i][l]Cryptospiza reichenovii[/i] [r]6 [l]live
[l]Birds [i][l]Hypargos niveoguttatus[/i] [r]16 [l]live
[l]Birds [i][l]Cosmopsarus regius[/i] [r]8 [l]live
[l]Reptiles [i][l]Physignathus cocincinus[/i] [r]9364 [l]live
[l]Reptiles [i][l]Physignathus cocincinus[/i] [r]850 [l]skins
[l]Reptiles [i][l]Rhacodactylus auriculatus[/i] [r]2 [l]live
[l]Reptiles [i][l]Rhacodactylus ciliatus[/i] [r]2988 [l]live
[l]Reptiles [i][l]Rhacodactylus leachianus[/i] [r]13 [l]live
[l]Reptiles [i][l]Rhacodactylus spp.[/i] [r]4 [l]live
[l]Reptiles [i][l]Teratoscincus scincus[/i] [r]907 [l]live
[l]Reptiles [i][l]Ctenosaura quinquecarinata[/i] [r]62 [l]live
[l]Reptiles [i][l]Tribolonotus gracilis[/i] [r]336 [l]live
[l]Reptiles [i][l]Tribolonotus novaeguineae[/i] [r]97 [l]live
[l]Reptiles [i][l]Elaphe carinata[/i] [r]25 [l]leather products (large)
[l]Reptiles [i][l]Elaphe carinata[/i] [r]49 [l]leather products (small)
[l]Reptiles [i][l]Elaphe carinata[/i] [r]15 [l]live
[l]Reptiles [i][l]Elaphe carinata[/i] [r]7683 [l]plates
[l]Reptiles [i][l]Elaphe carinata[/i] [r]122549 [l]skins 
[l]Reptiles [i][l]Elaphe radiata [/i] [r]3012 [l]leather products (small)
[l]Reptiles [i][l]Elaphe radiata [/i] [r]50 [l]live
[l]Reptiles [i][l]Elaphe radiata [/i] [r]361 [l]plates (m2)
[l]Reptiles [i][l]Elaphe radiata [/i] [r]7735 [l]plates
[l]Reptiles [i][l]Elaphe radiata [/i] [r]84960  [l]skins
[l]Reptiles [i][l]Enhydris bocourti[/i] [r]3948 [l]skins
[l]Reptiles [i][l]Homalopsis buccata[/i] [r]769 [l]leather products (small)
[l]Reptiles [i][l]Homalopsis buccata[/i] [r]13500 [l]live
[l]Reptiles [i][l]Homalopsis buccata[/i] [r]1018 [l]plates
[l]Reptiles [i][l]Homalopsis buccata[/i] [r]343842 [l]skins
[l]Reptiles [i][l]Lapemis curtus[/i] [r]20 [l]leather products (small)
[l]Reptiles [i][l]Lapemis curtus[/i] [r]1100 [l]plates
[l]Reptiles [i][l]Lapemis curtus[/i] [r]2786 [l]skins
[l]Amphibians [i][l]Phyllomedusa sauvagii[/i] [r]35 [l]live
[l]Amphibians [i][l]Paramesotriton chinensis[/i] [r]128 [l]live
[l]Amphibians [i][l]Paramesotriton labiatus[/i] [r]187 [l]live
[l]Amphibians [i][l]Tylototriton asperrimus[/i] [r]120 [l]live
[l]Amphibians [i][l]Tylototriton kweichowensis[/i] [r]308 [l]live
[l]Amphibians [i][l]Tylototriton verrucosus[/i] [r]100 [l]live
[l]Fish [i][l]Pterapogon kauderni [/i] [r]23537  [l]live
[l]Fish [i][l]Baronia brevicornis[/i] [r]50 [l]bodies
[l]Fish [i][l]Haliotis midae[/i] [r]320 [l]live
[l]Fish [i][l]Haliotis midae[/i] [r]11421 [l]shells
[l]Plants [i][l]Arisaema erubescens[/i] [r]2000 [l]live
[l]Plants [i][l]Arisaema galeatum[/i] [r]200 [l]live
[l]Plants [i][l]Arisaema sikokianum[/i] [r]2339 [l]live
[l]Plants [i][l]Arisaema thunbergii var. urashima[/i] [r]300 [l]live
[l]Plants [i][l]Arisaema tortuosum[/i] [r]1850 [l]live
[l]Plants [i][l]Arnica montana[/i] [r]3774 [l]leaves (kg)
[l]Plants [i][l]Trillium pusillum[/i] [r]2000 [l]live
[l]Plants [i][l]Trillium sessile[/i] [r]2500 [l]live
[l]Plants [i][l]Trillium sessile[/i] [r]200 [l]roots
[l]Plants [i][l]Arctostaphylos uva-ursi[/i] [r]36440 [l]dried plants (kg)
[l]Plants [i][l]Arctostaphylos uva-ursi[/i] [r]63853 [l]leaves (kg)
[l]Plants [i][l]Arctostaphylos uva-ursi[/i] [r]320 [l]leaves
[l]Plants [i][l]Gentiana lutea[/i] [r]1 [l]dried plants (kg)
[l]Plants [i][l]Gentiana lutea[/i] [r]14301 [l]roots (kg)
[l]Plants [i][l]Cetraria islandica[/i] [r]8231 [l]leaves (kg)
[l]Plants [i][l]Dasylirion longissimum[/i] [r]95 [l]live
[l]Plants [i][l]Lycopodium clavatum[/i] [r]3000 [l]dried plants (kg)
[l]Plants [i][l]Lycopodium clavatum[/i] [r]37920 [l]dried plants 
[l]Plants [i][l]Lycopodium clavatum[/i] [r]4620 [l]leaves (kg)
[l]Plants [i][l]Harpagophytum procumbens [/i] [r]119400 [l]roots (kg)
[l]Plants [i][l]Harpagophytum procumbens [/i] [r]58000 [l]roots 
[l]Plants [i][l]Harpagophytum spp. [/i] [r]17934 [l]dried plants (kg)
[l]Plants [i][l]Harpagophytum spp. [/i] [r]9216 [l]leaves (kg)
[l]Plants [i][l]Harpagophytum spp. [/i] [r]25 [l]medicine (kg)
[l]Plants [i][l]Harpagophytum spp. [/i] [r]194256 [l]roots (kg)
[l]Plants [i][l]Selaginella lepidophylla[/i] [r]5000 [l]leaves (kg)

This section covers both direct and indirect exports; hereafter, ‘exports’ refers to both direct exports and re-exports, unless otherwise specified.

EU Member States reported the export of four non-CITES taxa listed in Annex A or B. The majority of trade comprised live, captive-bred Columba livia (Rock Dove) directly exported for commercial purposes: 6027 birds were exported in 2011, a considerable decrease compared to the 23 595 exported in 2011. 

EU-reported (re-)exports of non-CITES Annex A and B species in 2012.

[l]Group Annex [l]Taxon [l]Origin (Re-exporter) Source Purpose [r]Total [l]Term
[l]Birds A [i][l]Ardea alba[/i] [l]Unknown (France) O T [r]<1 [l]carvings
[l]Birds A [i][l]Egretta garzetta[/i] [l]Belgium (Netherlands) C T [r]3 [l]live
[l]Birds A [i][l]Egretta garzetta[/i] [l]Germany (Netherlands) C T [r]3 [l]live
[l]Birds A [i][l]Egretta garzetta[/i] [l]Netherlands C P [r]10 [l]live
[l]Birds A [i][l]Columba livia[/i] [l]Spain C P [r]20 [l]live
[l]Birds A [i][l]Columba livia[/i] [l] C T [r]5989 [l]live
[l]Birds A [i][l]Columba livia[/i] [l]United Kingdom C B [r]18 [l]live
[l]Reptiles B [i][l]Trachemys scripta elegans[/i] [l]Netherlands O P [r]1 [l]live


Although EU Member States are not required to report on exports of Annex D specimens, Italy reported the re-export of specimens of two Annex D reptile species in 2012, Homalopsis buccata and Lapemis curtus (20 small leather products and 14 skins, respectively); all of which originated in Thailand and were wild-sourced and traded for commercial purposes.

[1] Trade in artificially propagated Annex B plants and re-exports of manufactured articles were excluded from the analysis.